The Arroyos® Psychological Associates, Inc.

A Concierge Practice Specializing in Comprehensive Care

Sleep Disorders
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Sleep Disorders

Sleep Disorders involve disturbances in sleep as a prominent feature.  Sleep Disorders can be classified into Primary Sleep Disorders and Sleep Disorders Related to Another Mental Disorder.  Primary Sleep Disorders are independent disorders that are not caused by other psychological, medical, or chemical factors, and are described here.

Primary Insomnia is a condition in which the patient is unable to initiate or maintain sleep for at least one month.  The insomnia is not caused by other medical or psychological conditions.  These symptoms significantly interfere with academic, work, or social relationships.

Primary Hypersomnia is a condition in which the patient describes excessive sleeping episodes at night or during the day, lasting for at least one month.  The hypersomnia is not caused by other medical or psychological conditions.  These symptoms significantly interfere with academic, work, or social relationships.

Narcolepsy is a disorder in which the patient experiences overpowering attacks of refreshing sleep on a daily basis over the course of at least three months.  The patient experiences sudden loss of muscle tone on both sides of the body, and also has characteristic difficulties at the beginning or ending of the sleep cycle.

Breathing-Related Sleep Disorder is a disturbance of sleep that is due to a sleep-related breathing condition such as Sleep Apnea.  The patient may experience either insomnia or hypersomnia.

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder is a persistent pattern of sleep disruption resulting from a discrepancy between the patient’s normal 24 hour wake/sleep cycle (circadian rhythm) and the surrounding environment.  Patients can experience either insomnia or hypersomnia.  Subtypes include Delayed Sleep Phase type, in which the patient falls asleep later than desired and sleeps longer than desired, Jet Lag type, and Shift Work type.

Nightmare Disorder is a condition in which the patient describes repeated awakenings, especially during the second half of sleep.  Upon awakening the patient describes lengthy and extremely frightening dreams involving primary threats to self.  The patient rapidly returns to normal after awakening.  These symptoms significantly interfere with academic, work, or social relationships.

Sleep Terror Disorder involves the sudden awakening with a frightening scream, typically in the first part of sleep.  The patient shows intense fear and bodily symptoms of anxiety similar to a Panic Attack.  The patient has amnesia for the episode and cannot recall any specific dream.  Individuals with Sleep Terror Disorder do not quickly return to normal after awakening and may be unresponsive to others during the episode.  These symptoms significantly interfere with academic, work, or social relationships.

Sleepwalking Disorder is a condition in which the patient arises from bed and walks about, usually occurring in the first half of sleep.  When sleepwalking the patient is unresponsive to others, has amnesia for the episode upon awakening, and rapidly returns to normal after awakening.  These symptoms significantly interfere with academic, work, or social relationships.

 
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