Psych Central reports on a new study which offers five different types of defense/fear responses to trauma. The study reports that the five responses occur in a ‘defense cascade’ which consists of five steps. The steps are arousal, fight or flight, freezing, tonic immobility, and quiescent immobility. This new research offers clinicians the ability to develop interventions based on the specific step of the cascade that a person may be in. To read this article in its entirety, click here.