Sleep-Wake Disorders involve disturbances in sleep as a prominent feature. Quality, timing, and the amount of sleep are common complaints of individuals with these conditions.
Insomnia Disorder is a condition in which the patient is unable to initiate or maintain sleep for at least one month. The insomnia is not caused by other medical or psychological conditions. These symptoms significantly interfere with academic, work, or social relationships.
Hypersomnolence Disorder is a condition in which the patient describes excessive sleeping episodes at night or during the day, lasting for at least one month. The hypersomnia is not caused by other medical or psychological conditions. These symptoms significantly interfere with academic, work, or social relationships.
Narcolepsy is a disorder in which the patient experiences overpowering attacks of refreshing sleep on a daily basis over the course of at least three months. The patient experiences sudden loss of muscle tone on both sides of the body, and also has characteristic difficulties at the beginning or ending of the sleep cycle.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea and Central Sleep Apnea are a disturbances of sleep that are due to a sleep-related breathing condition in which breathing is repeatedly temporarily suspended (apnea). The patient may experience sleepiness, fatigue, or feeling tired even when having received enough sleep. The conditions differ with regard to how serious the patient’s symptoms are.
Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders is a condition in which a persistent pattern of sleep disruption resulting from a discrepancy between the patient’s normal 24 hour wake/sleep cycle (circadian rhythm) and the surrounding environment. Patients can experience either insomnia or hypersomnia.
Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Arousal Disorders are repeated incomplete awakenings from sleep, especially during the second half of sleep. The person may exhibit Sleepwalking and/or Sleep Terrors. In sleepwalking the patient arises from bed and walks about, usually occurring in the first half of sleep. When sleepwalking the patient is unresponsive to others, has amnesia for the episode upon awakening, and rapidly returns to normal after awakening. In sleep terrors the patient suddenly awakes with a frightening scream, typically in the first part of sleep. The patient shows intense fear and bodily symptoms of anxiety similar to a Panic Attack.
Nightmare Disorder is a condition in which the patient describes repeated awakenings, especially during the second half of sleep. Upon awakening the patient describes lengthy, unpleasant, and extremely frightening dreams involving primary threats to self. The patient rapidly returns to normal after awakening. These symptoms significantly interfere with academic, work, or social relationships.
Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder involves repeated periods of arousal during sleep in which the person may yell, swear, or otherwise talk loudly, and in which they may fall, jump, fly out of bed, run, punch, hit, or kick. These behaviors can be very bothersome to sleep partners and can cause significant injuries to the individual and to the bed partner. The individual is alert, clear-headed, and not confused upon awakening.
Restless Legs Syndrome involves an uncomfortable feeling in the legs when resting or inactive resulting in an urge to move the legs. Movement decreases the urge, and symptoms are worse at night than during the day.